New Publications Fall 2010

Thursday, December 9, 2010 10:00:00 AM





book co-edited by Keith Gido and Donald Jackson
Keith B. Gido and DONALD A. JACKSON (editors). 2010.  Community Ecology of Stream Fishes: Concepts, Approaches, and Techniques.  American Fisheries Society. 664 pages.
Stream fish community ecology is an exciting field of research that has expanded rapidly over the past two decades. Both conceptual and technological advances have increased our ability to characterize patterns of community structure across multiple scales and evaluate processes that regulate those patterns. A main focus of this book is to synthesize those advancements and provide directions for future research.
     Chapters are grouped into five main themes: macroecology of stream fishes, stream fish communities in landscapes: importance of connectivity, conservation challenges for stream fishes, structure and dynamics of stream fishes, and role of fishes in stream ecosystems. An international group of renowned authors have contributed chapters and theme summaries that provide examples of current research within each of five themes as well as ideas for new research directions.
For a detailed list of chapters, please visit the AFS' book webpage.
Keith B. Gido is Associate Professor, Dept. of Biology, Kansas State University.
Don Jackson is Professor, Dept. of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology; and Director, Centre for Environment, U of T.  Home page:

book co-authored by Mark Hathaway
MARK HATHAWAY and Leonardo Boff.  2009. The Tao Of Liberation: Exploring the Ecology of Transformation.  Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York.  450 pages.
Today we may be standing at the most important crossroads in the history of humanity, and indeed of the Earth itself. Deepening poverty and accelerating ecological degradation challenge us to act with insight and maturity: How can we move toward a future where meaning, hope, and beauty can truly flourish? The Tao of Liberation is a search for this path, the wisdom needed to effect profound transformations in our world. The authors describe this wisdom using the ancient Chinese word Tao, meaning a way or path leading to harmony, peace, and right relationship. The book begins by asking: How does transformation occur or why is it so difficult to effect the changes so urgently needed to save the living Earth community? It then embarks on a journey of exploration through such diverse fields as economics, psychology, cosmology, and spirituality in search for the wisdom needed to move away from our current destructive path.
For more information:
Mark Hathaway is a Ph.D. candidate in OISE/UT's Dept. of Adult Education, Community Development and Counselling Psychology and the Centre for Environment's collaborative program in environmental studies. 
Leonardo Boff is a Brazilian theologian, author of more than 60 books, and recipient of the prestigious Right Livelihood Award.

book by Chris Kennedy
CHRISTOPHER KENNEDY. The Evolution of Great World Cities: Urban Wealth and Economic Growth. University of Toronto Press, 224 pages. (Forthcoming February 2011.)
What are the key factors distinguishing those cities that become wealthy from those that don't? Dr. Kennedy illuminates how geography, technology, and especially the infrastructure of urban economies allow cities to develop and thrive.  He includes significant insights from urbanists such as Jane Jacobs and economists such as John Maynard Keynes, drawing striking parallels between the functioning of ecosystems and of wealthy capitals. 
Chris Kennedy is a Professor in the Department of Civil Engineering. Home page:

book by Timothy Leduc
TIMOTHY B. LEDUC.  2010.  Climate, Culture, Change: Inuit and Western Dialogues with a Warming North.  University of Ottawa Press.  256 pages
Every day brings new headlines about climate change as politicians debate how to respond, scientists offer new data, and skeptics critique the validity of the research. To step outside these scientific and political debates, Timothy Leduc engages with various Inuit understandings of northern climate change. What he learns is that today's climate changes are not only affecting our environments, but also our cultures. By focusing on the changes currently occurring in the north, he highlights the challenges being posed to Western climate research, Canadian politics and traditional Inuit knowledge.  Climate, Culture, Change sheds light on the cultural challenges posed by northern warming and proposes an intercultural response that is demonstrated by the blending of Inuit and Western perspectives.
Timothy Leduc is an Assistant Professor of the Faculty of Environmental Studies at York University and former Post-Doctoral Fellow at the Centre for Environment (until August 2010).  Home page:

book authored by Rodney White
RODNEY WHITE. 2010.  Climate Change in Canada. University of Oxford Press. 184 pages.
This book is a short, accessible introduction to one of the most important issues facing us all.  From melting permafrost and falling water levels in the Great Lakes to extreme weather events, this book covers the latest science and expert predictions. Dr. White also explores the politics involved and evaluates the probable future of business and economics: clean technology, carbon markets, and "weather" markets, and looks forward to future solutions-from the international to the personal.
Rodney White is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Geography, former Director of the Institute for Environmental Studies (now known as the Centre for Environment), U of T. 

book co-edited by Clare Wiseman
Fathi Zereini and CLARE L. WISEMAN (editors) Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: Origins, Chemistry, Fate and Health Impacts.  Springer, Berlin. p. 790 (Forthcoming February 2011.)
This book presents up-to-date research and information on the origin, chemistry, fate and health impacts of airborne particulate matter in urban areas, a topic which has received a great deal of attention in recent years due to documented relationships between exposure and health effects such as asthma. With internationally recognised researchers and academics presenting their work and key concepts and approaches from a variety of disciplines, including environmental and analytical chemistry, biology, toxicology, mineralogy and the geosciences, this book addresses the topic of urban airborne particulate matter in a comprehensive, multidisciplinary manner. Topics and research addressed range from common methodological approaches used to sample and analyse the composition of airborne particulates to our knowledge regarding their potential to impact human health and the various policy approaches taken internationally to regulate particulate matter levels.
Dr. Fathi Zereini is a Lecturer, Institute for Atmosphere and Environment, University of Frankfurt am Main.
Clare Wiseman is an Assistant Professor in the Centre for Environment, U of T.



CAROLINE BRACHT. 2010.  G20 climate governance: from Toronto to Seoul. Online article posted on the G20 Information Centre (
At the Toronto G20 summit in June 2010, the G20 leaders pledged to combat climate change. They reiterated their commitments to explore options for innovative financing, to continue their efforts to phase out inefficient fossil fuel subsidies and to share best practices to protect the marine environment. To date most countries have yet to deliver in full on any of these promises. This paper looks at the level of commitment and compliance to climate change at recent G20 summits and at the broader international stage. By looking forward to the 2011 and 2012 respective G20 Summits in France and Mexico, the author discusses the countries' probable climate-related agenda items, and proposes that the G20 needs further consensus, clarity in the fossil fuel subsidy commitment, progress on ideas to finance climate change adaptation; and the adoption of climate change as a permanent agenda item.
The full article is available at
Caroline Bracht is a Researcher in the G8 Research Group and the G20 Research Group at the Munk School of Global Affairs, U of T. For more information, please contact her at The G20 and G8 Research Groups are global networks of scholars, students and professionals in the academic, research, business, non-governmental and other communities. The G20 and G8 Information Centres (www.g20.utoronto.ca are comprehensive permanent collections of information and analysis available online at no charge.


JESSICA C. D'EON and SCOTT A. MABURY. Exploring indirect sources of human exposure to perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs): evaluating uptake, elimination and biotransformation of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in the rat.  Environmental Health Perspectives.  118(11).  (In Press; online Nov 2010 (doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002409)
This research found that the consumption and metabolism of polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), used to keep grease from leaking through fast food wrappers and microwave popcorn bags and used to make other non-stick products, is a source of human exposure to Perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), the best known of which is perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Using the PAP concentrations previously observed in human blood together with the PAP and PFCA concentrations observed in the rats in this study, the researchers calculated human PFOA exposure from PAP metabolism.  As the concentrations of PFOA were found to be significant, it was concluded that the metabolism of PAPs could be a major source of human exposure to PFOA, as well as other PFCAs.  Although humans are exposed directly to PFCAs in food and dust, this study suggests that PAP exposure should be considered as a significant indirect source of human PFCA contamination.
The article is available in pdf at
Jessica D'Eon is a June 2010 Ph.D. graduate in the Department of Chemistry and the Centre for Environment's collaborative program in environmental studies. 
Scott Mabury is a Professor of Chemistry and Vice-Provost, Academic Operations, U of T.  Dr. Mabury also holds a graduate faculty appointment at the Centre for Environment.


NILIMA GANDHI, SATYENDRA P. BHAVSAR, Sarah B. Gewurtz, Gregg T. Tomy.  Can biotransformation of BDE-209 in lake trout cause bioaccumulation of more toxic, lower-brominated PBDEs (BDE-47, -99) over the long term? Environment International (In Press.)
Dr. Satyendra Bhavsar, Research Scientist at the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Adjunct Professor in the Centre for Environment, led an investigation on long-term impact of deca-brominated diphenyl ether (deca-BDE or BDE-209) in fish in order to guide policy development for this compound.  BDE-209 is a heavily used flame retardant with major applications in electronic enclosures and textiles. Many chemicals used in as flame retardants are harmful to organisms; a classic example is polychlorinated biphenyl or PCB, which was banned worldwide during the 1970s and 1980s.  Several types of brominated flame retardants including tetra- and penta-BDEs have been recently banned in various parts of the world including Canada; however, the debate about banning deca-BDE (along with some limited bans in some regions) continues.  BDE-209 has low volatility and very high hydrophobicity, and is therefore not considered highly susceptible to long range transport and bioaccumulation. However, it degrades in the environment and in organisms, including fish.  The major concern is that the high global use of BDE-209 could result in its significant environmental release and subsequently bioaccumulation of more toxic tetra- and penta-BDEs (which are already banned) through BDE-209 transformation in the environment over the long-term.  In this study, the researchers explored the long-term fate of dietary exposure of BDE-209 in two lake trout fish (piscivorous and non-piscivorous) over 15 years, using a fate/transport model.  It was found that the bioaccumulation of BDE-209 as well as some tetra- and penta-BDEs over the 15-year period was not appreciable in piscivorous lake trout and moderate in non-piscivorous lake trout even for worst-case scenarios. 
For more information, please contact Satyendra Bhavsar ( or Nilima Gandhi ( 
Dr. Satyendra Bhavsar is a Research Scientist at the Ontario Ministry of Environment and Adjunct Professor in the Centre for Environment, U of T.
Nilima Gandhi is a Ph.D. candidate in the Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Centre for Environment, U of T.
Dr. Sarah Gewurtz is a former Post-doctoral Fellow in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, U of T.
Dr. Gregg Tomy is a Research Scientist, Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada.


PETER RALEVIC, Shantagouda.G. Patil, and Gary vanLoon. 2010. Integrated agriculture production systems for meeting household food, fodder and fuel security. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 34(8): 878-906.
Agriculture including crop production and animal husbandry provides for the food, fodder, and fuel needs in rural regions of many countries such as India. Using the knowledge pertinent to complex mixed cropping-livestock systems at the village level, the goal of this study was to develop a rational method for crop selection, such that the capacity for production of food, fodder and biomass fuel can be examined under various cropping patterns.  An agricultural survey was carried out in 2007 for three villages located in the dryland agro-ecozone of Karnataka State, India. Various demands, including human food energy and protein requirements, and constraints, including land area, are modeled for optimal cropping pattern.  A clear recommendation of the study is that a substantial shift in village-wide area planted to cereal crops, in all cases over 50%, is necessary to satisfy human and livestock demands. Additionally, there are visible and growing population pressures on the resources in the dryland, semi-arid regions of India, and these strategies will need to be supplemented by improved agronomic practices directed toward increased productivity.
U of T faculty, staff and students may download the article at:
or by using U of T library e-resources:
Peter Ralevic is a Ph.D. student in the Faculty of Forestry and the Centre for Environment at U of T. His thesis is evaluating the Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potential and Cost-Competitiveness of Forest Bioenergy Systems in Ontario. For more information, please email
Shantagouda G. Patil is Director of Instruction (Agri), Agriculture College, Bheemarayanagudi, Karnataka State, India. 
Gary vanLoon is Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and Adjunct Faculty in Environmental Studies, Queen's University.

PETER RALEVIC, Mark Ryans, and Denis Cormier. 2010. Assessing forest biomass for bioenergy: Operational challenges and cost considerations. Forestry Chronicle 86(1): 43-50.
Sustainability assessments and biomass inventories often neglect the operational challenges involved in the harvesting of forest biomass for bioenergy. Thus, concerns that increasing demands for biomass will lead to greater environmental impacts, particularly on soil productivity, need to be considered from an operations perspective that takes into consideration the technical and cost limitations to biomass recovery. This study examined operational forest biomass recovery potential of harvest residue (slash) for three sites located north of Kapuskasing, Ontario. Supply flows of harvest residues and costs for the supply flows were estimated using the Biomass Opportunity Supply Model (BiOS), developed by FPInnovations - Feric Division.  After harvesting limitations and planned retentions (such as wildlife trees) were taken into consideration, 41% (41.2 ovendry tonnes/ha) and 59% of total above-ground biomass were estimated to remain on site in two mixedwood blocks, and 25% in a black spruce block. Thus, considerable biomass was left on the forest floor, contrary to popular perceptions that bioenergy harvesting will result in a "clearing" or potential "vacuuming" of the forest floor. The delivered cost was higher than conventional: $53/odt or ovendry tonnes ($2.86/GJ energy equivalent) and $58/odt ($3.14/GJ) for the two upland sites and $59/odt ($3.19/GJ) for the lowland black spruce site. Although operational and cost considerations thus limit harvest residue recovery, and although there are a number of operational factors that can minimize environmental impacts on soils and biodiversity, sustainable biomass removal guidelines still need to be implemented on sites sensitive to soil damage and nutrient removal.
A pdf article is available at
U of T faculty, staff and students may also download the article by using U of T library e-resources:
Peter Ralevic is a Ph.D. student in the Faculty of Forestry and the Centre for Environment's collaborative program in environmental studies (see above).
Mark Ryans is Research Manager, FPInnovations-Forest Operations,  and Denis Cormier is Program Leader Silvicutural Operations, Associate Program Leader Bioenergy at FPInnovations.

INGRID STEFANOVIC. 2010.  The greening of corporate ethics. Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table 2010(3): 1-11.
There is increasing reason to believe that the world's financial crisis is inextricably linked to the environmental crisis, both because current corporate practices contribute to environmental degradation but also because global climate change threatens to impact upon the way in which business can continue to function profitably and sustainably. After summarizing some key reasons for moving beyond the traditional dichotomy between "environment" and "economy," this paper argues for a need to better integrate the fields of business ethics and environmental ethics. The final section of the paper presents some strategies for increased awareness and behaviour modification within the corporate sector.
The full article is available online at:
Ingrid Stefanovic is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy and former Director of the Centre for Environment, U of T.  She gave a presentation on this topic at the Oxford Round Table on Ethics and the World Financial Crisis in Oxford, England, in March 2010.


JAMES D. THOMSON. 2010. Flowering phenology, fruiting success and progressive deterioration of pollination in an early-flowering geophyte. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365(1555): 3187-3199. (doi: 10.1098/rstb.2010.0115)
In a U of T led study led Professor James Thomson of the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology has found a decline in bee pollination suggesting climate change as a possible contributor, causing flowers to open before bees emerge from hibernation.  Dr. Thomson's 17-year examination of the wild lily in a remote plot of land in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado is one of the longest-term studies of pollination ever done. It reveals a progressive decline in pollination over the years, with particular pollination deficits early in the season.  Comparing the fruiting rate of unmanipulated flowers to that of flowers that are supplementally pollinated by hand, he found that the unmanipulated flowers were blooming earlier than they used to - possibly due to climate change - when the bees were still hibernating.  His work has been supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
U of T faculty, staff and students may view the full article is available online at:
For more information on Dr. Thomson's research: